vi editor Quick Reference

 

Introduction

Learn about the default text editor, vi, pronounced as ”vee eye”, in Unix, Linux and other Unix like systems. A short, concise vi quick reference lets you get started with vi today. Explains vi editor mode &  vi commands with examples for editing in vi.

In order to work correctly the vi need correct terminal type (TERM) setting depending on the type of terminal you have. Commonly used TERM types are vt100 , vt220 and ansi. In most cases vt100 will work fine. In case vi is not able to understand the TERM you have given, it starts in open mode giving you a line by line display .
TERM’s value is taken from .profile or /etc/profile but can be set at the command line as :
$TERM=vt100
$export TERM
echo $TERM will display the current TERM set.

Modes in vi

vi operates in following two modes :
i.) Command Mode: After a file is opened it is opened in command mode and input from the keyboard will be treated as vi commands, you will not see the words you are typing on the screen
ii.) Insert Mode : vi enters in insert mode by pressing letter ‘i’ or ‘a’ and it will accept letter typed as input
iii) Switch between vi mode : Press Esc key to swich modes, Esc -> i (text mode) -> Esc (command mode)

Following sections provide a vi quick referance to perform everyday tasks.

  1. File Open/Save/Quit
  2. Moving Around
  3. Editing
  4. Operations
  5. Search/Replace

File Open/Save/Quit

Command  Description 
vi filename Open or create file
vi Open new file to be named later
vi -r filename Recover crashed file
view filename Open file read-only
Saving and Quitting
:w Save changes (write buffer)
:w filename Write buffer to named file
:wq Save changes and quit vi
ZZ Save changes and quit vi
:q! Quit without saving changes

Moving Around

Moving  Cursor in file 
h Move one character left
j Move one line down
k Move one line up
l Move one character to right
w Move one word right
W Move one word (past punctuation) right
b Move one word left
B Move one word (past punctuation) left
e Move to of current word end
Moving Cursor  with keys
Return/Enter key Move down one line down
Backspace Move left one character left
Spacebar Move right one character right
Moving on Screen
H Move to of screen top
M Move to  middle of screen
L Move to bottom of screen
Moving on Screen using ctrl key combination
Ctrl-f Page forward one screen forward
Ctrl-d Scroll forward one-half screen  
Ctrl-b Page backward one screen
Ctrl-u Scroll backward one-half screen

Editing

Insert Characters and Lines
a Insert characters  right of cursor
A Insert characters  end of line
i Insert characters left of cursor
I Insert characters  beginning of line 
o Insert line  below cursor
O Insert line  above cursor
Text Change Operations
cc Change line
cw Change characters in a word or entire word right of cursor
C Change from cursor cursor to end of line
s Substitute string for character(s)  from cursor forward 
r Replace character with  other character at cursor
r Return Break line at cursor
J Join to current line line below
xp Transpose character cursor and character to right
~ Change case of letter to uppercase or lowercase at cursor
u Undo previous command
U Undo all changes to current line
:u Undo  previous line command
Delete Text in file 
x Delete character at the cursor 
X Delete character to the left of the cursor 
dw Delete word (or part of word to right of cursor)
dd Delete line containing the cursor
D Delete part of line to right of cursor 
dG Delete to end of file
d1G Delete from beginning of file to cursor 
:1,4 d Delete lines 1 to 4 
Copy and Move lines
yy Yank or copy current  line 
4yy Copy 4 lines
Y Yank or copy line 
p Put yanked or deleted line below current line 
P Put yanked or deleted line above current line
:1,2 co 3 Copy lines 1-2 and put after line 3
:4,6 m 7 Move lines 4-6 and put after line 7
Inserting a File Into a File
:r filename Insert (read) file after cursor
:34 r filename Insert file after line 34

Operations

Show/hide Line Numbers
:set nu Show line numbers for all  lines
:set nonu Hide  numbers for all  line
set/ignore case for search
:set ic Searches should ignore case
:set noic Searches should be case sensitive
go to line
G Go to last line of file
1G Go to first line of file
21G Go to line 21
Clearing the Screen
Ctrl-L Clear  screen of std-io messages screen

Search and Replace

Search and Replace
/string Search for string anywhere in file
?string Search backward for string
n Find next occurrence of string in search direction
N Find previous occurrence of string in search direction
:%s/search/s/replace/g Search and replace in file

 

4 Responses to vi editor Quick Reference

  1. PCSH says:

    Hi, I am wondering what is the difference between normal quit (:q or :wq) and forced quit (:q! or :wq!)? What is it forcing to do? To override something? Please help. Thanks!

  2. Eric says:

    q will exit, but does not exit if there are changes.
    q! will exit with unsaved changes.
    wq will save and exit.

    Looks like a good reference, but there are a few errors:

    20d does not delete line 20, it deletes 20 lines.
    :20d deletes line 20.

    This command will replace the character 1 after the cursor with everything after the first keystroke:
    s///g .
    This command will perform a search and replace on the current line:
    :s///g
    This command will perform a search and replace on the entire document:
    :%s///g

    For simplicity (when working with searches involving slashes) I use the modified syntax:
    :%s!!!g

  3. Vanessa says:

    The ~, or tilde, will reverse case of your typed text. This also advances the cursor right by one space. If the character does not have a case, it will simply advance by one space. This has been remarkably useful time saver.

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