Top 10 Bash Programming Guides, Reference & Tools

Bash is a Unix/Linux  command interpreter (shell). Bash is the Bourne Again SHell created as part of  GNU Project.  Bash is an Bourne  shell compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It offers functional improvements over Bourne shell  for both programming and interactive use. In addition, most Bourne shell scripts can be run by Bash without modification. Bash  is intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell and Tools standard.

Bash was originally written by Brian Fox of the Free Software Foundation. The current developer and maintainer is Chet Ramey of Case Western Reserve University.

The improvements offered by Bash include:

  • Command line editing
  • Unlimited size command history
  • Job Control
  • Shell Functions and Aliases
  • Indexed arrays of unlimited size
  • Integer arithmetic in any base from two to sixty-four

Here are the top 10 Bash Programming Guides, Reference  & Tools Continue reading “Top 10 Bash Programming Guides, Reference & Tools”

How to Remove ^M in Linux & Unix

Control M ( ^M)  characters are introduced when you use  lines of text from a windows computer to  Linux or Unix machine.  Most common reasons are when you directly copy a file from a windows system or submit form data copied and pasted from a windows machine.

Detecting ^M characters

^M is non printable character and often becomes difficult to find, in order to see if your file contains any non printable character use the cat command with -v option

$cat -v filename

Methods to remove ^M

In all these method , real secret is not to type ^M using keyboard but rather typing in control key sequence to get the ^M control character. Continue reading “How to Remove ^M in Linux & Unix”

chmod Quick Referance with Examples

What is chmod ?

chmod ( Change Mode ) is a command line utility in Unix , Linux and other Unix like systems to change the read, write, execute permissions of a file for owner , group and others.

How to use chmod?

Chmod command is used in two ways :
1. Using octal value & position : Sets the permission for owner, group and others with octal values , 4 for read , 2 for write , 1 for execute and any sum of these number to get cumulative permissions. Continue reading “chmod Quick Referance with Examples”

Linux Download : Top 10 Free Linux Distributions for Desktop and Servers

All the Linux distributions are either derivative of GNU/Linux ( OS made up of Linux Kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and GNU software repository) or derived from other Linux derivatives.

Desktop distributions comes with Graphical user interface enabled by default &   aimed at individual users and most of the administration work can be done using GUI. Good for new users and running Linux-based graphical applications.

Server Distribution are for more advanced users who are familiar with Linux command line as Graphical Interface is not enabled by default in most of the server distributions. Server distributions comes with web servers like apache  and networking packages like DNS and useful for running backend services , work as web server or DNS Server.

Continue reading “Linux Download : Top 10 Free Linux Distributions for Desktop and Servers”