Category Archives: Basics

fsck Messages, Meaning and Solutions

fsck message can be cryptic and many times it is difficult to understand it is great challenge to decide about the response to provide for fsck prompts.

This article describes  the fsck error messages and possible action that can be performed  during each phase of fsck.  If you are looking for fsck and related information, you can find it in this article fsck – Check & Repair Unix and Linux File Systems

These are the phases and detailed errors, messages  with their meaning

Top 10 Bash Programming Guides, Reference & Tools

Bash is a Unix/Linux  command interpreter (shell). Bash is the Bourne Again SHell created as part of  GNU Project.  Bash is an Bourne  shell compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It offers functional improvements over Bourne shell  for both programming and interactive use. In addition, most Bourne shell scripts can be run by Bash without modification. Bash  is intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell and Tools standard.

Bash was originally written by Brian Fox of the Free Software Foundation. The current developer and maintainer is Chet Ramey of Case Western Reserve University.

The improvements offered by Bash include:

  • Command line editing
  • Unlimited size command history
  • Job Control
  • Shell Functions and Aliases
  • Indexed arrays of unlimited size
  • Integer arithmetic in any base from two to sixty-four

Here are the top 10 Bash Programming Guides, Reference  & Tools

How to Remove ^M in Linux & Unix

Control M ( ^M)  characters are introduced when you use  lines of text from a windows computer to  Linux or Unix machine.  Most common reasons are when you directly copy a file from a windows system or submit form data copied and pasted from a windows machine.

Detecting ^M characters

^M is non printable character and often becomes difficult to find, in order to see if your file contains any non printable character use the cat command with -v option

$cat -v filename

Methods to remove ^M

In all these method , real secret is not to type ^M using keyboard but rather typing in control key sequence to get the ^M control character.

Bash Positional Parameters, Arguments

Bash Shell has several special positional parameters which can be referenced but can not be assigned. These bash parameters are used to process command line arguments in a bash shell script, to get process status, exit status and options flag.

These bash positional parameters can be assigned to a variable and values can be used for further processing.

 $0 , $1 $2 $3 … bash Parameters

These are special parameters and has specific meaning according to the number.  These parameters are useful if you want to validate executing file name and do the processing based on the arguments.

$0 : bash Shell argument 0, It expands into bash script file name or bash shell.

$1 $2 $3 …   : bash shell argument number : Used to get the specific argument from the script.

for example let’s create & execute the test script with some parameters and note the bash arguments supplied as parameters :

find command : Top 14 Ways to find files in Unix and Linux

find command is one of the important command in Unix and Linux used to locate the program, text,  data , log config files for execution, viewing ,  editing  renaming deleting etc. etc.

find command can find files based on many file attributes besides just the file name and here are the fifteen file  attributes which you can use to find a file or files and here are 14 ways to find files in your unix and linux system.

Red Hat 7.x Installation : Step by Step Guide

Installation and Configuration of RHEL 7.x
Learn about Installation and initial configuration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, RHEL 7.3
For this Linux step by step installation guide we will use RHEL 7.3  64Bit iso image, the installation procedure is same for all RHEL 7.x releases in case you want to use a different RHEL version to install.

Here are the 10 Steps to Install RHEL 7.x distribution.

chmod Quick Referance with Examples

What is chmod ?

chmod ( Change Mode ) is a command line utility in Unix , Linux and other Unix like systems to change the read, write, execute permissions of a file for owner , group and others.

How to use chmod?

Chmod command is used in two ways :
1. Using octal value & position : Sets the permission for owner, group and others with octal values , 4 for read , 2 for write , 1 for execute and any sum of these number to get cumulative permissions.

man command in Linux and Unix

man command, short for manual, provides help for the commands, utilities or function in Linux and Unix systems. Learn about usage , related packages, sections and other interesting facts about man pages.

Solaris 11 & Solaris 10 Certification

Learn about the Solaris 10 & 11 certification , price, number of questoons , duration and direct links to official site for exam 1z0-876, 1z0-821 and more.

Linux Download : Top 10 Free Linux Distributions for Desktop and Servers

All the Linux distributions are either derivative of GNU/Linux ( OS made up of Linux Kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and GNU software repository) or derived from other Linux derivatives.

Desktop distributions comes with Graphical user interface enabled by default &   aimed at individual users and most of the administration work can be done using GUI. Good for new users and running Linux-based graphical applications.

Server Distribution are for more advanced users who are familiar with Linux command line as Graphical Interface is not enabled by default in most of the server distributions. Server distributions comes with web servers like apache  and networking packages like DNS and useful for running backend services , work as web server or DNS Server.